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Lamprologus callipterus - CallipterusMagyarul / Hungarian
Lamprologus callipterus - CallipterusLamprologus callipterus - CallipterusLamprologus callipterus - CallipterusLamprologus callipterus - CallipterusLamprologus callipterus - CallipterusLamprologus callipterus - CallipterusLamprologus callipterus - CallipterusLamprologus callipterus - Callipterus
  • Scientific name: Lamprologus callipterus
  • Synonyms: Neolamprologus callipterus (Boulenger, 1906), Lamprologus reticulatus (Boulenger, 1906), Julidochromis elongatus (Steindachner, 1909), Neolamprologus elongatus (Steindachner, 1909), Lamprologus steindachneri (Boulenger, 1915), Lamprologus modestus nyassae (Borodin, 1936)
  • Common name: Callipterus
  • Group: Cichlids
  • Distribution: Africa; endemic to Lake Tanganyika
  • Size: male:15 cm, female: 6 cm
  • Biotope: Inhabits the transition zones in the lake, where the rocky shore meets the open waters, and there are only scattered piles of rocks that cover the sandy bottom.
  • Social behavior: Males are aggressive and territorial with conspecifics and with other fish too, so they should be kept with other species only in larger tanks.
  • Diet: Omnivorous; In nature they feed on invertebrates and small fish, while in the aquarium they usually accept all kinds of live and frozen foods or even quality dried foods.
  • Breeding: Quite easy
  • Tank: Minimum 150 litres
  • Population: 1 male and 5-6 females for 150 litres
  • Decoration: Build piles of rocks in their aquarium, and leave some areas of open water between these. Use sandy substrate and place empty snail shells of all sizes into the sand, that the fish can occupy.
  • Temperature: 24-27 °C
  • pH: 7.5-9.0
  • Hardness: 10.0-25.0 NK°
  • Lifespan: 6-8 years
Description: Males have a greyish or olive green to light brown base coloration with shiny rows of dots on their flanks. There are iridescent blue lines running under the eyes, and on the upper lip. The females have brownish body with marbled pattern. Because of their drab colouration and aggressive nature Lamprologus callipterus isin't a popular species among hobbyists, but still its fascinating breeding makes it an interesting fish.
Males grow much larger, and may weigh over 20 times more than females. Males must be large enough to move the snail shells (Neothauma tanganyicense), while females must be small enough to fit inside them.
Breeding is possible in aquarium. The female lays the eggs into snail shells, but they should be kept and bred in a separate aquarium to raise a full brood, otherwise the tankmates will hunt down the fry. Escargot shells are a good choice and can be obtained quite easily. The water should be hard and alkaline (pH 8.0-8.5). In nature, dominant males will command harems of up to 30 females, so at least 3 females should be kept with a male. Males must be around 9 cm long before they are able to carry Neothauma snail shells. Mature male will dig a large, shallow pit in the sandy substrate, and start to collect snail shells from around the aquarium to provide spawning site for the females. When a female approaches the pit the male will perform wavering movements and tries to invite the female to a snail shell entrance. The female usually lays 30 eggs in the shell, and the male releases sperm directly over the entrance, as he is too large to enter into the shell. The female stays in the shell, fanning the eggs and larvae for 10-14 days, while the male protects the territory. The female will not feed during this period. When the fry become free-swimming they can be fed with newly hatched brine shrimp or with other small foods.

In nature the spawning pit of a mature male can be several meters in diameter and may contain hundreds of snail shells (Neothauma tanganyicense). Interestingly, when they are protecting brooding females, males do not eat and eventually become so weak that their territories are taken over by stronger fish. Immature and weaker males will form schools that may exceed 100 individuals, and these groups raid the habitat and devour anything that crosses their path and can be swallowed. Females are only found in areas containing the nests of dominant males. Extreme size dimorphism present among males, with both sizes displaying different behavior and reproductive performance. Sub-dominant males will sneak into a dominant male's territory and try to deposit sperm into shells containing females. Other smaller males that are small enough to enter the females? shells will hide in shells and try to fertilise any eggs they find.

Sources:
http://www.fishbase.org/summary/8612
http://www.seriouslyfish.com/species/lamprologus-callipterus/
http://www.cichlid-forum.com/articles/l_callipterus.php
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamprologus_callipterus
Guide to Tanganyika Cichlids by Ad Konings
A Tanganyika- és a Malawi-tó sügérvilága
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